WebMD Medical News
Louise Chang, MD
March 6, 2009 -- Comedian and actor Robin Williams abruptly postponed
upcoming performances of his one-man show, "Weapons of
Self-Destruction," announcing on his web site that he needs to undergo
surgery for an aortic valve replacement.
The brief announcement said that Williams, who began the 80-city tour in
September 2008, hopes to pick it up again in the fall. Williams, 57, is known
not only for comedy but for his role in the TV show Mork and Mindy and
the 1997 movie Good Will Hunting.
The aortic valve replacement surgery that Williams needs, termed
"routine" by cardiac surgeons, is the same procedure that former first
lady Barbara Bush underwent earlier this week.
WebMD contacted two cardiac surgeons -- neither involved in the care of
Williams -- to get more information on the valve condition and what can be
The aortic valve sits between the main "pipe" coming out of the
heart -- the aorta -- and the left ventricle, the pumping chamber, says John
Robertson, MD, director of thoracic and cardiac surgery at St. John's Health
Center, Santa Monica, Calif. "It helps maintain the forward flow of blood
out of the heart into the body," he says.
The valve might have become thick and narrowed, a condition called stenosis,
says Abe DeAnda, MD, a cardiac surgeon and director of aortic surgery at
Montefiore -- Einstein Heart Center at Montefiore Medical Center/Albert
Einstein College of Medicine, New York.
Or, the valve might have become leaky, a condition known as aortic valve
insufficiency. Sometimes, the valve has both problems, DeAnda says.
"Aortic stenosis is becoming more common as the population ages,"
Robertson says. In some cases, people may have a congenital abnormality of the
valve and it then becomes leaky or narrowed.
In 2007, 17,592 aortic valve replacement surgeries were done in the U.S.,
according to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. That figure includes only
"isolated" valve replacements, not procedures in which the aortic valve
was replaced and other heart procedures were also done.
It is difficult to say without information about symptoms and medical
history, Robertson and DeAnda say. Stenosis is more commonly the reason for
valve replacement, in Robertson's experience.
Stenosis usually comes on more gradually than a leakage problem, DeAnda
Not really. The average age for symptoms associated with aortic valve
stenosis is the early 60s, Robertson says.
Many of the patients that DeAnda performs aortic valve replacement on are in
their 50s and 60s. But others, like Barbara Bush, are in their 80s. Some
teenagers need the procedure, often because of a congenital abnormality of the
A patient may report symptoms, such as sudden shortness of breath, DeAnda
says. According to news reports, Williams complained of shortness of
Or, a physician may detect a murmur -- an unusual or extra heart sound heard
-- during a routine exam. The doctor may then refer the patient for an
echocardiogram, a test that uses sound waves to create a detailed, moving
picture of the heart and how it is functioning.
"Sometimes murmurs are innocent and remain innocent for years,"
Robertson says. "Just because you have a murmur doesn't mean you have a
problem that will affect you long term." But these patients should be
followed up with echocardiograms [sonogram of the heart] to monitor the
condition, he says.
"Probably genetics more than anything else," Robertson says, and
DeAnda agrees. In some cases, lifestyle can be a factor, Robertson says. One
example: a drug addict who injects drugs may develop a valve infection,
damaging it, and making it necessary to replace it.
There are several options. Two of the most common approaches are to replace
the damaged valve with a mechanical valve, or with a biological one, from human
or animal tissue (pigs or cows).
"The younger patients are, the more likely they will have a mechanical
valve," Robertson says. They last longer than the biological valves. The
downside: patients with mechanical valves must be on blood thinners for the
rest of their lives to reduce the risk of clots, Robertson says, although
"there are [mechanical] valves being studied now that may not require
ongoing blood thinners."
Patients given biological valves are typically put on blood thinners only
for about three months, if at all, and then can go off the medicines. But the
biological valves do not last as long as the mechanical ones.
Those with mechanical valves can sometimes hear the valve clicking,
Robertson says. "When you are sitting in a room with them," he says, if
it's very quiet you may hear it.
Yet another valve replacement option, called the Ross procedure, is more
complicated, say DeAnda and Robertson. The aortic valve is removed and replaced
by the patient's own pulmonary valve. Then the patient's pulmonary valve is
replaced with a biological pulmonary valve (donor valve).
"Either choice would be reasonable for him," DeAnda says.
"You can live a normal life," DeAnda says. "That's the whole
"You can return [the patient] to a normal life expectancy,"
Typically patients are back to work in about six weeks, DeAnda says. After
that, if they are doing well, DeAnda tells them they can travel, go through
metal detectors without difficulty, and resume a normal sex life.
For those on blood thinners, there are some restrictions, Robertson says.
"No contact sports or black diamond skiing," he says, because the risk
of injury -- and potential blood loss from it -- is considered too great.
SOURCES:Abe DeAnda Jr., MD, cardiac surgeon, director of aortic surgery,
Montefiore-Einstein Heart Center, Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein
College of Medicine, N.Y.John Robertson, MD, cardiac surgeon, director of thoracic and cardiac
surgery, St. John's Health Center, Santa Monica, Calif.Robin Williams' web site.American Heart Association: "Aortic Valve Stenosis and
Insufficiency."Society of Thoracic Surgeons: "Aortic Valve."
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